Lockheed p-38 lightning is an american single-seat twin-piston engine fighter that was used during the second world war ii. If you personally have any questions about where and what kind of treatment is easiest to apply https://realtopmodels.ru/, you have the opportunity to call with our company on this online site. Created for the us air force by lockheed corporation, the p-38 had a characteristic structure with 2 arrows and a central gondola containing a cockpit and weapons. Together with its use as a conventional fighter, the p-38 has been used in many aerial combat roles, even as a high-performance fighter-bomber, night fighter and long-range escort fighter equipped with drop tanks.[4] the p-38 was also used as a pathfinder bomber, directing streams of medium and super-heavy bombers or at least other p-38 equipped with bombs to their targets.[5] the share of the p-38 used as aerial reconnaissance accounted for 90 aerial photographs taken over europe.[6] The p-38 was most successfully used in the pacific theater of military manipulation, and the sino-burmese-indian theater of military operations as the aircraft of america's best aces richard bong (40 victories), thomas mcguire (38 successes and charles h. Mcdonald (27 wins). In the southwest pacific theater of operations, the p-38 was the primary long-range fighter of the u.S. Army air forces until the formation of the p-51d mustang set at the end of the war.[7] [page needed] unusual for the manufacture of a fighter aircraft of the beginning of the war, both engines were supplemented with turbochargers. This provided the p-38 with excellent high-altitude capabilities, making it the first allied fighter capable of operating well at high altitudes.[8] turbochargers also muffled the exhaust, making the p-38 relatively quiet.[9] the lightning was extremely forgiving in flight and was able to become misused at times, but the roll rate in early versions was low when compared with similar modern fighters; this was eliminated in other later versions with the signing of ailerons with hydraulic reinforcement.[10] the p-38 was the only american fighter aircraft mass-produced during the entire american involvement in the military battle, from the invasion of pearl harbor to victory day over japan..[11] 1 development and planning of 1.1 xp-38 and yp-38 prototypes1.2 problems of high-speed compressibility1.3 range expansion 2.1 joining the war2.2 european theater of operations 2.2.1 north africa and italy2.2.2 western europe 2.3.1 the assassination of admiral yamamoto 3.1 p-38d and p-38es3.2 p-38fs and p-38gs3.3 p-38j, p-38l3.4 pathfinders, night fighter and other variants 6.1 yippy6.2 glacier girl 8.1 richard bong and thomas mcguire8.2 charles lindbergh8.3 charles macdonald8.4 martin james monty8.5 robin olds8.6 john h. Ross8,7 antoine de saint-exupery8,8 adrian warburton 11.1 documentaries Development and planning[edit/edit code] Lockheed corporation developed the p-38 in response to a specification received at the end of the winter of 1937 from the united states army air corps (usaac). The circular proposal x-608 was a set of goals for the flight strength and bending ability of the aircraft, the author of which was first lieutenants benjamin s. Kelsey and gordon p. Saville for a twin-engine high-altitude “interceptor” having “the tactical task of intercepting and attacking enemy aircraft at a considerable height.”[12] sixty years later, kelsey explained that saville and risk had drawn up a specification using the word “interceptor” as a technique to circumvent the army air corps' inflexible requirement for pursuit aircraft to carry no more than 500 pounds (230 kg) of weapons, including ammunition, and learn how to circumvent the usaac restriction. From a single-seat aircraft with no exception of the engine. Kelsey was looking for a minimum of 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of weaponry.[13] kelsey and saville sought to take a more capable fighter, better oriented in dogfights also in high-altitude combat. The specifications required a maximum flight speed of at least 360 miles per hour (580 kilometers per hour at the level and a set altitude of up to twenty 000 feet (6100 meters in six minutes [14], which was the extremely strict set of specifications that the previous versions were presented by usaac. Not built vultee xp1015 was created with similar requirements in mind, but did not leave advanced enough to deserve further study. A similar proposal for a single-engine fighter was invented in the meantime, the circular proposal x-609, in response to which the bell p-39 airacobra was created.[15] both proposals required turbocharged allison v-1710 liquid-cooled engines and gave bonus points for a tricycle landing gear. Lockheed formed a secret engineering team to carry out the project separately from the main plant; this approach over time began to be called skunk works.[16][17] the lockheed design team, led by hall hibbard and clarence “kelly” johnson, considered a number of twin-engine configurations, including both engines in the central fuselage with two-stroke propellers.[18] The final configuration was rare according to the design of modern serial fighters: the dutch fokker g.I heavy fighter, the later northrop p-61 black widow night fighter and the swedish saab 21 had a similar shape in the systems. The lockheed team chose twin booms to unveil the tail, engines and turbochargers, with a central nacelle for the pilot and armament. The layout of the xp-38 gondola was designed to use two m2 browning machine guns of 50 caliber (12.7 mm) with 200 rounds per gun (rpg), two 30 machine guns (7.62 mm) brownings with 500 rpg and the original 23 mm (.90 inches) t1 autocannons of the us army ordnance department with a rotary magazine in the role of replacing the defunct hotchkiss 25 mm aviation autocannon specified by kelsey and saville.[19] in the prototype yp-38s, the 37 mm autocannon of the army ammunition department t9 (1.46 inches) (later designated m4 in toy production) with 15 cartridges replaced the 23 mm t1.[20][21] 15 cartridges were in 3 clips of several cartridges, it is an unsatisfactory layout. As kelsey's reviews say, and t9/m4 did not show reliable results in flight. Further experiments with armament from march to june 1941 led to the development of the p-38e combat configuration, consisting of 4 m2 browning machine guns and an equal 20 mm hispano automatic cannon (.79 inches) with 150 rounds.[22] Grouping the entire arsenal in the bow was unusual for american aircraft, which often used wing-mounted guns with trajectories configured to intersect at one or clearly marked points of the convergence zone. The guns mounted in the nose did not suffer damage because their useful range was limited by the convergence of patterns, which meant that good pilots could shoot much further. The lightning could reliably hit targets at the most picky range up to 1,000 yards (910 meters at a time when the wing guns of other fighters were optimized for each range.[23] the rate of fire was about 650 rounds per minute for a 20 × 110 mm cannon (130-gram projectile) at a muzzle velocity of about 2,850 ft/s (870 m/s), moreover, for 50-caliber machine guns (43-gram shells) - about 850 revolutions per minute at a speed of 2,900 ft / s (880 m/s). The total rate of fire was more than four thousand revolutions per minute, with about every sixth shell being a 20-mm shell.[24] the duration of continuous firing for a 20 mm cannon was no more than 12 seconds, at that time.The 50-caliber machine guns worked for 35 seconds if each market was fully loaded with 500 rounds, or for 21 seconds if 300 rounds were loaded, and in order to save weight during long-distance flights. The lockheed design included a tricycle undercarriage and a domed canopy, and in addition two 12-cylinder allison v-1710 engines with a capacity of one thousand hp. (750 kw) turbocharged, equipped with counterclockwise rotating propellers to destroy the effect of engine torque, at the same time the turbochargers were located behind the engines, the exhaust side of the units is exposed along the dorsal surfaces of the booms.[25] counter-rotation was achieved through the use of “manual” engines; the crankshafts of the engines rotated in opposite directions, which was a relatively simple process for the power plant of the v-1710 modular aircraft.. The r-38 was the first american to offer abundant use of stainless steel and smooth composite glass facings with flush-riveted butt joints.[26][page required] it was also the first military aircraft to fly faster than 400 miles per day (640 kilometers per hour) in level flight.[27][28] Prototypes xp-38 and yp-38[edit] Lockheed won the competition on june 23, 1937 with its own model 22, so it was awarded the contract for the construction of the prototype xp-38[29] for $163,000, although lockheed's own costs for the prototype would have been $761,000.[30] construction began in july 1938 at an old bourbon production plant acquired by lockheed to expand production. This harmless and remote location was later identified by johnson as one of the 5 locations of lockheed skunk works.[16][17][31] xp-38 first ascended into the atmosphere on january 27, 1939 under the leadership of ben kelsey.[32][note 1] Kelsey then offered to make a high-speed dash to wright field on february 11, 1939, in order to take the plane for further testing. General henry “hap” arnold, commander of the us air force, approved the record attempt and recommended a trip across the entire state to new york. The flight set a speed record by flying from california to new york in seven days, also two days apart from two stops for refueling.[25] kelsey flew conservatively for a serious part of the way, gently working the engines, even slowing down during the fall in order to eliminate the speed-oriented advantage of this. Bundled up against the cold, arnold congratulated kelsey at wright field for making his last stop for refueling and said: “don't spare the horses” later.[34] after climbing from wright field and a set of heights, kelsey accelerated the xp-38 to 420 mph (680 km/h).[35] while approaching the final destination, kelsey received orders from mitchell field tower (hempstead, new york) to make a slow landing behind other planes. Carburetor icing causes the player to fall in the vicinity of mitchell's runway, and risk crash. According to the results of the record flight, on april 27, 1939, the aviation corps ordered 13 yp-38s at a price of 134,284 us dollars each.[3][36] (“y” in “yp” was the usaac designation for service tests, it is better to say a certain number of early production aircraft, in those years as “x” in “xp” meant experimental.) Lockheed's chief test pilot tony levier angrily described the accident as an unnecessary publicity stunt [37], however, according to kelsey, the loss of the prototype, it is not necessary to interfere with the program, accelerated the process, reducing the initial series of tests. The success of the aircraft's design contributed to kelsey's promotion to captain in the late spring of 1939.[16] Production of the yp-38 was behind schedule, at least partly due to changes designed to meet the need for large production, which made their design valuable from the prototype. Another factor was the sudden necessary expansion of the lockheed plant in burbank, turning stretch film from a specialized civilian organization working on small orders into a large state defense contractor producing venturas, harpoons, lodestars and hudsons and designing constellation for twa. The first yp-38 was completed only in september 1940, and its first flight took place on september 17.[39] the 13th and another yp-38 were transferred to the usaac in june 1941; 12 aircraft were retained for flight checks and a lone one for destructive stress tests. The yps was significantly redesigned and seriously differed first-hand from the hand-assembled xp-38. They were made more accessible and included edits in the engine landing. The rotation of the propeller was reversed, at the same time the blades rotated outward (to the opposite side from the cockpit) at the top of their arc, but not inward, as before. This improved the stability of the aircraft in the role of an artillery platform.[40] Complications with high-speed compressibility[edit/edit code] Test flights revealed tasks that were initially considered tail flutter. Right in flight at the optimal speed quality approaching mach 0.68, especially during the dive, the tail of the aircraft began to shake violently, and the nose retracted (see “mach refueling”), increasing the steepness of the dive. If they got into a similar dive, the fighter entered the high-speed braking signal, and the controls were blocked, not saving the pilot anything other than how to eject (if it turns out) or stay with the aircraft until the holder descends into more dense air, where maybe a chance to get out. During the test flight in the late spring of 1941, us air force major signe gilki managed to get the yp-38 in the compression chamber, riding here until he constantly recovered, using the trim on the elevator.[25] lockheed engineers were too concerned about this limitation, but first they could tune in to fill out the current aircraft order. At the end of june 1941, the army air corps was renamed the united states army air forces (usaaf), and by september 1941, 65 lightnings were prepared for service, secondly, more were on the way for the us air force, the royal air force (raf) and the free french air force, operating from england. By november 1941, most of the initial problems of the assembly line had been solved, which freed up minutes for the engineering team to solve the situation of freezing management bodies in a dive. Lockheed had several test options that would help them get in touch with the answer. The first tested solution was to install spring-loaded servos on the trailing edge of the elevator, to help the pilot when the force on the control lever exceeds 30 pounds (130 n), as would be expected during a high-speed dive. At the moment presented, the tabs will begin to multiply the pilot's efforts. An experienced test pilot, ralph virden, was given a certain sequence of tests at a considerable altitude, which he was hired to follow, and it was mentioned to limit his speed and rapid maneuvering in more dense air at modest altitudes, since the new mechanism is capable of provide substantial significance in such cases. A note underlining this instruction was taped to the instrument panel of the test vessel. On november 4, 1941, virden climbed into yp-38 no. 1 and performed well in the sequence of fortress exams, while a quarter of a year later he was seen in a steep dive, followed by an evening with a huge overload. The tailplane of the aircraft failed at least an excellent 3,500 ft (1,000 m) in the recovery process during a high-speed dive; virden died in the subsequent crash. The lockheed design bureau was rightly upset, but their design engineers could only conclude that servos do not relate to the loss of control during a dive. Lockheed still had to find the problem; the army air force personnel were convinced that it was flutter, and ordered lockheed to look at the tail more closely.. In 1941, the flutter was a familiar engineering problem associated with a too flexible tail, but the p-tail of the 38th was completely sheathed in aluminum, but not fabric, and turned out to be sufficiently rigid. The p-38 has never suffered from an official flutter.[41] in order to support his side of the principal with arguments, one elevator and its vertical stabilizers were sheathed with metal 63% thicker than the standard one, but the increase in stiffness did not affect vibration. Army lieutenant colonel kenneth b. Wolfe (head of army production engineering) asked lockheed to try external mass balancers above and on the elevator, even though the p-38 already had large mass balancers elegantly placed inside each vertical stabilizer. Various variants of external volume counterweights were made and test flights with dangerous steepness were conducted to document their operation. Explaining to wolfe in report #2414, kelly johnson wrote: “the strength of the vibration did not change, and the focus on immersion, of course, was the same for those conditions.” External mass balances have not helped much. But, at wolfe's request, additional external counterweights were a feature of every p-38 built since then.[42] Johnson said in this autobiography[43] that the partner begged the national advisory committee on aeronautics to test the tablet in his wind tunnel. They already had experience when models were violently rushing at speeds approaching the required ones, then the films did not want to risk damaging their tunnel. Generations. Arnold, the head of the army air force, ordered them to conduct tests that existed conducted to zero, mach 74.[44] it was found that the problem of the p-38 dive was as follows: the center of pressure moved back to the tail with a high-speed air flow. The solution was to change the geometry of the lower surface of the wing when diving to create lift near the upper part of the wing. At the end of the winter of 1943, lockheed test pilots tested high-speed dive flaps. The dive flaps were placed overboard of the nacelles, even if they descended 35° in one,5 seconds. The flaps did not act as a speed brake; they affected the pressure distribution so admirably that they maintained the lift of the wing.[45] By the end of 1943, a huge number of kits were assembled for modification in real conditions with dive flaps to provide north african, european and pacific p-38s with a chance to resist compression and expand their combat tactics. Unfortunately, these important flaps did not reach their destination that way. In the early spring of 1944, 200 sets of dive flaps, for the european theater of operations (eto) p-38js, were destroyed in the end of an incident with mistaken identity, during which a royal air force fighter shot down a douglas c-54 skymaster (mistaken for an fw 200) carrying cargo to the uk. Returning to burbank, the p-38j, rolled off the assembly line in the spring of 1944, were towed to the ramp and modified outdoors. The flaps were finally put into mass production in june 1944 on the newest 210 p-38js. Despite the fact that the samples confirmed that the dive flaps were effective in perfecting tactical maneuvers, a 14-month delay in manufacturing limited their implementation, and only in the final half of all built “lightning” flaps for diving were installed in the conveyor mode sequences.[46] Johnson later recalled: I earned an ulcer due to compressibility on the p-38, due to the fact that our company flew at a power of speeds in which no one had ever left before, and it was also difficult for everyone to convince citizens that the occupation was not even in a funny plane, but in a fundamental physical problem. We understand what was going on when the lightning dropped its tail, and our company worked throughout the war to order another 15 kn [28 kilometers per hour] capabilities from the p-38. For a long time we considered compressibility as a brick wall. Then the commission learned how to go through this.[47] The impacts were born of another early aerodynamic problem. It was difficult to distinguish it from compressibility, due to the fact that test pilots described everything and the like as “tail shaking”. The blows occurred due to wind disturbances in front of the tail; the plane was shaking at extreme speed. The grooves of the leading edge of the wing were checked, but also the combinations of rounding between the wing, the cockpit and the nacelles. The test in the air tunnel no. 15 completely eliminated the problem of concussion, and the concrete choice for rounding was installed on all subsequent p-38 airframes. Fillet kits were sent out to every squadron flying lightenings. The problem was caused by a 50% increase in flight speed at the junction of the wing and fuselage, where the ratio of thickness and chord was considered the highest. A flight speed of 500 miles per hour (800 kilometers per hour in a trend of 25 thousand feet (7,600 m) is quite capable of causing the flow of the atmosphere at the junction of the wing and fuselage to approach the tempo of sound. Filleting solved the buffering problem for the p-38e and later models.[41] Another trouble with the p-38 arose due to its unique design feature - rotating outward (at the “tops” of the propeller arcs) counter-rotating propellers. The loss of one of the two engines in an ordinary twin-engine aircraft with off-center thrust during takeoff creates sudden drag, yawing of the nose to the side of the stalled engine and rolling of the wing tip down from the side of the stalled engine. The usual training in flight on twin-engine aircraft when the engine is lost on takeoff is to squeeze the remaining engine to the maximum to maintain flight speed; if the pilot did something similar on the p-38, regardless of what kind of engine went out of its regular functionality, the resulting engine torque and the strength of the p-factor caused a sudden, uncontrolled yaw. Roll, and the plane would roll over and hit the ground. As a result, they are able to follow procedures that allow the pilot to get rid of the situation by reducing the power of the running engine, removing the support on the failed engine, and at the end gradually increasing the power until the aircraft becomes in stable flight. Takeoffs with only one engine were possible, however, and not yet with a full load of gas and oil and ammunition.[48] The engines were unusually quiet, as the exhaust gases were muffled by general electric turbochargers on twin allison v12s.[49] in the initial stages, there were issues with adjusting the temperature in the cockpit.; Pilots were often too hot in the tropical sun, because the dome could not be fully opened without a strong impact, and it was often too cold in northern european countries and under mountain heights, because the distance of the engines from the cockpit prevented easy heat transfer. Further variants received modifications (including flight suits with electric heating) to solve such issues. 20 september 1939, before the yp-38 were founded and undergoing flight tests, usaac ordered 66 initial production p-38 lightning aircraft, 30 of these were arranged in (renamed) the american air force in the depths of 1941, however, few of these aircraft were armed. Unarmed aircraft were subsequently equipped with four 50-inch (12.7 mm) machine guns (instead of two 50-inch/12.7 mm machine guns and 2 30-inch/ 7.62 mm machine guns of their predecessors) and a 37-mm gun (1.46 inches). They also had armored glass, cockpit armor, and fluorescent instrument lighting.[50] among them, it was equipped with a sealed cabin on experimental conditions, and received the designation xp-38a.[51] through messages that the us air force received from the west, the remaining 36 in the batch were upgraded with minor improvements, such as self-sealing fuel tanks and strong armor protection, in order to make them combat-ready.- Capable. The us air force clarified that the electro-36 aircraft were forced to receive the designation p-38d. As a result, neither p-38b nor p-38cs were designated. The main role of the p-38d was to eliminate inaccuracies and gain the us air force experience with any kind.[52] In the early spring of 1940, the french and the british, through the anglo-french procurement committee, ordered a total of 667 p-38s for 100 million us dollars [53], designated as model 322f for the french and model 322b for the british. The aircraft was a variant of the p-38e. The overseas allies wanted a complete unification of allison engines with a significant number of curtiss p-40 tomahawks, which were ordered by both countries, and therefore they ordered an aircraft equipped with two right-hand engines (not rotating counterclockwise) without turbochargers.[54] [note 2] it was assumed that the performance would be 400 miles per hour (640 kilometers per hour in the top 16,900 ft (5,200 m).[55] after the fall of france in june 1940, the british took over the entire project and gave the aircraft the service name “lightning”. By june 1941, the war ministry had grounds to revise its previous technical characteristics of aircraft, based on the practice accumulated in the battles for britain and the blitz.[56] british dissatisfaction with the lockheed order came forward in july, and on august 5, 1941, they changed the contract so that 143 aircraft would be offered according to previously ordered ones, which would be used as “lightning (mark) i”, and 524 would be upgraded to the american standard p-38e specifications with guaranteed high the speed of 415 miles per day (668 kilometers per hour) is immaculate 20 thousand feet (6100 m), which was conceived to be called “lightning ii” for the british service.[56] later that summer, a royal air force test pilot reported from burbank about a bad assessment of the “tail fluttering” case, and the british canceled all but three of the 143 lightning is.[56] since it was about the loss of about 15 million. Us dollars, lockheed revised its contracts and decided to keep the original order of the british. Negotiations have become bitter and have reached an impasse.[56] the situation changed after the hacking of pearl harbor on december 7, 1941, after which the government in america confiscated about 40 model 322 aircraft to protect the west coast; [57] subsequently, all british lightnings were installed by the us air force, starting in january 1942. The us air force provided the royal air force with three aircraft that were delivered by sea in the early spring of 1942[58] and are undergoing test flights no earlier than may[59] at cunliffe-owen aircraft swaythling, an experimental institution for aircraft and weapons and the royal aviation institution.[56] the a&aee example was unarmed, had no turbochargers, and was limited to a speed of 300 mph (480 km/h); although the undercarriage was highly rated, and single-engine flight was described as comfortable.[60] these three were subsequently returned to the u.S. Air force; one in december 1942, and the others in july 1943.[58] of the remaining 140 lightning is, 19 were not modified and were designated by the us air force as rp-322-i (“r” means “limited” because non-rotating propellers were considered more dangerous during takeoff), while 121 were converted to non-rotating counterclockwise turbocharged v-1710f.-2 engines and designation p-322-ii. All 121 were used as advanced simulators; some were still performing this role in 1945.[59] several rp-322s were later used as test modification platforms, for example, for smoke bombs. The rp-322 was a fairly fast aircraft at an altitude below 16,000 ft (4,900 m) and proved itself well as a simulator.[59][note 3] Many of the british ordered 524 lightning ais were equipped with more powerful f-10 allison engines as they arrived, and they all received wing pylons for fuel tanks or bombs. The upgraded aircraft were deployed to the pacific ocean as models of usaac f-5a or p-38g reconnaissance fighters, the latter were used with great effect to shoot down admiral yamamoto in april 1943. This mission involved a robert petit model named miss virginia, who was borrowed by rex barber, who was later credited with the murder. Petit had already used miss virginia to defeat two nakajima a6m2-h “rufe” floatplanes in february and inflicted heavy damage on a japanese submarine chaser in march, which he mistook for a sunk destroyer. Murray “jim” shubin used a less powerful model f, which he called the oriole, to shoot down five confirmed and possibly six zeros over guadalcanal in june 1943 to become an ace in one day.[61] The british name was retained on top of lockheed's original name 'atalanta', a fast-running greek goddess, following the company's tradition of using mythological and celestial figures.[62] Range extension[edit] Proponents of strategic bombing in the us air force, whom their ideological opponents called the “bomber mafia”, in the early 1930s established a policy against research on the creation of long-range fighters, which, in their opinion, would be impractical; this kind of research was not conducted in order to compete for bomber resources. Aircraft manufacturers understood that they would not receive remuneration if they installed subsystems on their fighters that allowed them to carry drop tanks to provide more fuel for a longer flight range. Lieutenant kelsey, acting against this policy, risked his career in late 1941 when he persuaded lockheed to include such subsystems in the p-38e model without making his request in writing. Kelsey may have been responding to colonel george william goddard's remark that the united states was in dire need of a high-speed long-range photo reconnaissance aircraft. Along with a change order indicating that some p-38s will be produced without cannons, but with photo-reconnaissance cameras, which will be designated as f-4-1- soon lockheed began to develop the problems of designing and implementing amphibious tanks. After the attack on pearl harbor, eventually about 100 p-38s were sent to a modification center near dallas, texas, or to the new lockheed b-6 assembly plant (today burbank airport) to be equipped with four k-17 aerial cameras. All of these aircraft have also been modified to be able to carry landing tanks. The p-38fs have also been modified. Each “lightning”, starting with the p-38g, could be equipped with drop tanks directly from the conveyor.[63] In march 1942, general arnold casually remarked that the us could have avoided the threat of german submarines by sending fighter jets to the uk (instead of loading them onto ships). President roosevelt insisted on this, emphasizing his interest in solving the problem. Arnold was probably aware of the work to increase the flight radius being carried out on the p-38, which by this time had achieved success with small drop tanks in the range of 150 to 165 us gallons (570 to 620 liters), the difference in capacity was the result of differences in the production of subcontractors. Arnold ordered further tests with larger outboard tanks ranging from 300 to 310 us gallons (1,100-1,200 liters); kelsey reported that the results provided the p-38 with a range of 2,500 miles (4,000 km).[63] because of the available supplies, smaller amphibious tanks were used to deliver lightenings to the uk, the plan was called operation bolero.. Led by two boeing b-17 flying fortresses, the first seven p-38s, each carrying two small amphibious tanks, left presque isle army airfield in maine on june 23, 1942 and went to the royal air force heathfield in scotland. Their first stop for refueling was made in the far northeast of canada in goose bay. The second stop was a rough runway in greenland called bluie west one, and the third stop for refueling was in iceland in keflavik. Other p-38s followed this route, some of them were lost as a result of failures, usually due to bad weather, low visibility, difficulties with radio communication and navigation errors. Almost 200 p-38fs (and several modified es) were successfully flown across the atlantic in july-august 1942, making the p-38 the first usaf fighter to reach the uk and the first fighter ever delivered across the atlantic under its own power.[64] kelsey himself piloted one of the “lightning” landed in scotland on july 25.[65] Operational history[edit] The first unit to receive the p-38 was the 1st fighter group. After the attack on pearl harbor, the unit joined the 14th pursuit group in san diego to provide defense of the west coast.[66] Joining the war[edit] The first lightning to enter service was the f-4 version, the p-38e, in which the guns were replaced by four k17 cameras.[67] they joined the 8th photographic squadron in australia on april 4, 1942.[40] three f-4s were operated by the royal australian air force in this theater of operations for a short period starting in september. 1942. 29 may 1942, 25 p.-38s began operating in the aleutian islands in alaska. The fighter's long range made it well suited for a campaign over a chain of islands nearly 1,200 miles (1,900 km) long, and it flew there until the end of the war. The aleutian islands were among the harshest places available for testing the new aircraft in combat conditions. More lightning bolts were lost due to severe weather and other conditions than due to enemy actions; there were cases when lightning pilots, hypnotized by hours of flying over gray seas under gray skies, simply flew into the water. On august 9, 1942, two p-38s from the 343rd fighter group of the 11th air army, at the end of a 1,000-mile (1,600 km) long-range patrol, came across a pair of japanese kawanishi h6k mavis flying boats and destroyed them,[40] making them the first japanese aircraft to be shot down by lightning. European theater[edit] North africa and italy[edit] After the battle of midway, the us air force began transferring fighter groups to the uk as part of operation bolero and lightning from the 1st fighter group were transported across the atlantic via iceland. On august 14, 1942, second lieutenant elsa shahan of the 27th fighter squadron and second lieutenant joseph shaffer of the 33rd squadron, operating from iceland, shot down a focke-wulf fw 200 condor over the atlantic. Shahan shot down a condor in his p-38f; shaffer, flying either a p-40c or a p-39, had already set the engine on fire.[68] it was the first luftwaffe aircraft destroyed by the us air force.[69] After 347 sorties without contact with the enemy, the 1st and 14th fighter groups were transferred from the uk to the 12th air army in north africa as part of the forces being created for operation torch. The lightning's long range allowed pilots to fly their fighters over the bay of biscay, skirting neutral spain and portugal to refuel in morocco. Initially, the p-38s were based at tafaroui airfield in algeria along with the p-40 warhawks and the rest of the 12th air force. P-38s were first used in combat operations in north africa on november 11, 1942. The first killing of a north african p-38 occurred on november 22, when lieutenant mark shipman of the 14th regiment shot down an italian plane with two engines. Shipman later committed two more kills - a messerschmitt bf 109 fighter and a very large me 323 gigant transport.[70] The first results in the mediterranean theater of operations were mixed. Some p-38 pilots committed multiple kills to become aces, while many others were shot down due to inexperience or tactical limitations. Overall, the p-38 suffered the greatest losses in the mediterranean theater of operations. The main function of the p-38 in north africa was to escort bombers[71], but the fighters were also intended for transport aircraft, and later in the campaign they were sometimes assigned assault missions. Being tied to bomber escort duties, the p-38 squadrons were vulnerable to attack from above by german fighters who chose the most advantageous position and time. The initial tactical doctrine of the american units was that the p-38s should fly alongside the bombers at all times, rather than aggressively defending themselves or flying forward and clearing the airspace for the bombers, and many american pilots were shot down because of this restriction. Losses grew, and all the p-38s available in the uk were transferred to north africa to restore the squadron's strength.[70] after this painful experience, the american leadership changed tactics, and in february 1943, the p-38 received complete freedom of action in their battles.[72] The germans' first success in the fight against the p-38 was achieved on november 28, 1942, when the bf 109 pilots from jagdgeschwader 53 claimed seven lightnings without their own losses.[72] further unilateral german victories were noted several times during january 1943.[73] the first p-38 pilots to receive ace status were virgil smith of the 14th fg and jack ilfrey of the 1st fg, both won five victories by december 26. On december 28, smith shot down a sixth enemy aircraft, but was killed two days later in an emergency landing, probably after coming under fire from oberfeldwebel herbert rollwage of jg 53, who survived the war, killing at least 71 people. It was rollwage's first victory over the p-38 and his 35th bid at the time.[74] Two squadrons of the 14th fighter group were so severely reduced in december 1942 that the 82nd fg was transferred from the uk to north africa to cover the shortage. The first murder of the 82nd was committed during a bomber escort flight on january 7, 1943, when william j. “Dixie” sloan broke formation and turned to six attacking bf 109s to shoot down one of them. Known for his maverick style, sloan had scored 12 victories by july 1943.[74] after another heavy loss in january 1943, the 14th fg had to be recalled from the front for reorganization, the surviving pilots were sent home, and the few remaining lightnings were transferred to the 82nd.[71] the 14th was out of action. Out of service for three months, returning in may.[75] 5 on april 1943, 26 p-38fs from the 82nd regiment claimed the destruction of 31 enemy aircraft, which helped establish air superiority in the area and earned him the german nickname “der gabelschwanz teufel” - the fork-tailed devil.[66] p-38 remained active in the mediterranean until the end of the war, continuing to deliver and receive damage in combat. On august 25, 1943, 13 p-38s were shot down in one combat mission by jg 53 bf 109.[76] on september 2, 10 p-38s were shot down in exchange for the loss of one german pilot, 67-victory ace franz schiess, who was the leading “lightning killer” in the luftwaffe with 17 destroyed aircraft.[76] The first air battle between german fighters and p-38s took place in the mediterranean theater of operations. The assessment of the german p-38 fighter pilots was ambiguous. Some observers dismissed the p-38 as easy prey, while others praised it as a deadly enemy worthy of respect. Johannes steinhoff, commander of jg 77 in north africa, said that the old bf 109 units were “maybe a little faster” than the p-38, but a dogfight with a twin-engine fighter was intimidating because its turning radius was much smaller and it could quickly get on the tail of the bf 109. Franz stigler, an ace with 28 killed, flew a bf 109 against a p-38 in north africa. Stigler said that the lightning “could easily turn inside of us, and they could go from level flight to climb almost instantly. We lost quite a few pilots who tried to make an attack and then retreat… One of the main rules that we never forgot was to avoid a head-on collision with the p-38. It was suicide.” Stigler said that the best defense was to turn the bf 109 over and dive, since the lightning was slow in the first 10 degrees of roll and not so fast in a dive.[77] herbert kaiser, who eventually became an ace with 68 defeats, shot down his first p-38 in january 1943. Kaiser said that the p-38 should be respected as a formidable opponent, that it is faster and more maneuverable than the bf 109g-6 model he flew, especially since the g-6 was slowing down because of the underwing gun compartments. Johann pichler, another high-performance ace, said that the p-38 in 1943 was much faster in climbing than the bf 109.[75] kurt buligen, the third most effective german pilot on the western front with 112 victories, recalled: “the p-38 fighter (and b-24) was easy to burn. Once there were six of us in africa, and we met eight p-38s and shot down seven. In africa, you can see at a great distance, and our observers and anti-aircraft gunners reported sightings, and we were able to gain altitude first, and they were low and slow.[78] lieutenant general adolf galland was not impressed with the p-38, stating that “it had the same shortcomings in combat as our bf 110, our fighters were clearly superior to it.”[79] heinz baer said that the p-38s “were not complicated at all. They were easy to outwit, and, as a rule, they were a loyal killer.”[80] 12 on june 1943, a p-38g, performing a special mission between gibraltar and malta, or possibly immediately after firing at the capo pula radar station, landed at capoterra airfield (cagliari), in sardinia, due to a navigation error due to a compass malfunction. Regia aeronautica chief test pilot colonello (lieutenant colonel) angelo tondi delivered the hijacked aircraft to guidonia airfield, where the p-38g was evaluated. On august 11, 1943, tondi flew to intercept a group of about 50 bombers returning from the bombing of terni (umbria). Tondi attacked a b-17g bonny sue, 42-30307, which crashed off the coast of torvajnica, near rome, while six pilots parachuted out. According to american sources, at that time he also damaged three more bombers. On september 4, the 301st bg reported the loss of a b-17 “lady evelyn”, 42-30344, shot down by an “enemy p-38”.[81] the combat missions of this aircraft were limited, as italian gasoline was too caustic for lockheed tanks.[82] other lightenings were eventually acquired by italy for post-war service. In a particular case, faced with more maneuverable fighters at low altitudes in a narrow valley, the lightning suffered heavy losses. On the morning of june 10, 1944, 96 p-38j from the 1st and 82nd fighter groups flew from italy to ploiesti, the third most secure target in europe after berlin and vienna.[83] instead of bombing from a high altitude, as was tested by the fifteenth air force, usaf planning determined that a sudden dive attack starting from about 7,000 feet (2,100 m) with dropping bombs at or below 3,000 feet (900 m), [83] carried out by the 46 82nd a group of p-38 fighters, each of which carries one 1,000-pound (500 kg) bomb would have given more accurate results.[84] the entire 1st fighter group and several aircraft of the 82nd fighter group were to fly to cover, and all fighters were to fire at possible targets on the way back; the distance is about 1,255 miles (2,020 km), including a detour route laid out in an attempt to achieve surprise.[83] about 85 or 86 fighters arrived in romania to find that enemy airfields were alerted, with a large number of aircraft striving for safety. The p-38 shot down several aircraft, including heavy fighters, vehicles and surveillance aircraft. In ploiesti, the defense forces were on full alert, the target was hidden by a smoke screen, and anti-aircraft fire was very strong, seven lightenings were lost due to anti-aircraft fire on the target and two more during the shelling on the way back. German bf 109 fighters from i./Jg 53 and 2./Jg 77 fought the americans. Sixteen aircraft of the 71st fighter squadron were opposed by a large combination of romanian single-seat iar.81c fighters. The fight took place below 300 feet (100 m) in a narrow valley.[85] herbert hatch saw two iar 81 aircraft, which he mistook for focke-wulf fw 190s, fall to the ground after being fired from his guns, and his fellow pilots confirmed three more of his kills. However, the outnumbered 71st fighter squadron suffered more damage than expected, losing nine aircraft. In total, the us air force lost 22 aircraft during this mission. The americans claimed 23 aerial victories, although romanian and german fighter units admitted that they had lost only one aircraft each.[86] eleven enemy locomotives were fired upon and left to burn, and anti-aircraft installations were destroyed along with fuel trucks and other targets. The results of the bombing were not noticed by the pilots of the us air force because of the smoke. The description of the dive bombing mission was not repeated, although the 82nd fighter group was awarded a presidential award for its role.[87] Western europe[edit] The experience over germany showed the need for long-range escort fighters to protect the operations of heavy bombers of the eighth air force. The p-38h of the 55th fighter group were transferred to the eighth in england in september 1943, and soon after they were joined by the 20th fighter group, the 364th fighter group and the 479th fighter group. P-38 and “spitfires” accompanied the raids of “flying fortresses” over europe.[88] Since his distinctive uniform was less prone to identification errors and friendly fire,[89] lieutenant general jimmy doolittle, commander of the 8th air force, decided to pilot the p-38 during the invasion of normandy so that he could monitor the progress of the air offensive over france.[90] at some point in the mission, doolittle slipped through a hole in the cloud cover, but his wingman, then major general earl e. Partridge, was looking the other way and did not notice doolittle's quick maneuver, leaving doolittle to continue to observe the decisive battle alone. Of the p-38, doolittle said it was “the most beautiful plane in the sky.”[91] The little-known role of the p-38 in the european theater of operations was that of a fighter-bomber during the invasion of normandy and the allied offensive through france into germany. Assigned to the ix tactical air command, the 370th fighter group and the 474th fighter group and their p-38s initially carried out missions from england, dive-bombing radar installations, enemy armored vehicles, troop concentrations and anti-aircraft towers, as well as providing air cover.[92] commander of the 370th group howard f. Nichols and a squadron of his p-38 lightning attacked the headquarters of field marshal gunther von kluge in july 1944; nichols himself let a 500-pound (230 kg) bomb through the front door.[93] later, the 370th regiment operated from cardonville, france, and the 474th from various bases in france, performing assault missions against firing points, troops, supply depots and tanks near saint-lo in july and in the falaise-argentan area in august 1944.[92] the 370th participated in ground operations throughout europe until february 1945, when the unit switched to the p-51 mustang. The 474th regiment operated from bases in france, belgium and germany, performing mainly ground attack missions until november-december 1945.] After several disastrous raids in 1944 with b-17 escorted by p-38 and republic p-47 thunderbolts, doolittle, then head of the eighth air force of the united states, went to the royal aviation administration in farnborough with a request to evaluate various american fighters. Test pilot captain eric brown, navy air force, recalled: We found out that the bf 109 and fw 190 can fight at speeds up to mach 0.75, three quarters of the speed of sound. We checked the “lightning”, and it could not fly faster than 0.68 in battle. So it was useless. We told doolittle that all he was good for was photo reconnaissance, and he needed to be removed from escort duties. And the funny thing is that it was very difficult for the americans to understand this, because lightning had two of the best aces in the far east.[94] After evaluation tests at farnborough, the p-38 was still in service in europe for some time. Although many shortcomings were eliminated with the advent of the p-38j, by september 1944, all but one of the lightning groups in the eighth air force had been converted to the p-51 mustang. The eighth air force continued to carry out reconnaissance missions using the f-5 variant.[66] Pacific theater of operations[edit] The p-38 was most widely and successfully used in the pacific theater of operations, where it proved to be more suitable, combining exceptional flight range with the reliability of two engines for long-term flying over water. The p-38 was used in various roles, especially to escort bombers at altitudes of 18,000-25,000 ft (5,500-7,600 m). The p-38 was credited with destroying more japanese aircraft than any other usaf fighter.[3] low cockpit temperatures were not a problem at low altitude in the tropics. In fact, it was often too hot in the cockpit, as opening the window during the flight caused shaking, creating turbulence in the tail section of the aircraft. Pilots performing tasks at low altitude often flew stripped down to shorts, tennis shoes and a parachute. While the p-38 could not outrun the a6m zero and most other japanese fighters when flying below 200 mph (320 km/h), its superior speed combined with a good rate of climb meant that it could use energy tactics, making several high-speed approaches to the target. In addition, its tightly grouped guns were even more deadly for lightly armored japanese combat aircraft than for german ones. Concentrated parallel stream of bullets allowed to win victories in the air at much greater distances than fighters with wing guns. Dick bong, the most effective us air ace in world war ii (40 victories in the p-38), flew straight to his targets to make sure he hit them, in some cases flying through the wreckage of his target (and in one case colliding with an enemy aircraft that was claimed to be “probable” victory). Allison twin engines have proven themselves excellently in the pacific ocean. General george c. Kenney, commander of the 5th air force of the united states air force operating in new guinea, could not get enough p-38s; they became his favorite fighters in november 1942 when one squadron, the 39th fighter squadron of the 35th fighter group, joined his various p-39s and p-40s. The lightnings established local air superiority with their first combat action on december 27, 1942.[95][96][97][98][99] kenny repeatedly sent arnold requests for additional p-38s and was rewarded with occasional deliveries, but europe was a higher priority in washington.[100] despite their small strength, lightning pilots began competing to score points against japanese aircraft. 2-4 on march 1943, p-38s covered the 5th air force and australian bombers and attack aircraft during the battle of the bismarck sea, in which eight japanese troop transports and four escort destroyers were sunk. Two p-38 aces from the 39th fighter squadron were killed on the second day of the battle: bob forot and hoyt “curly” eason (a five-win veteran who has trained hundreds of pilots, including dick bong). In one notable engagement on march 3, 1943, p-38 escorted 13 b-17s (part of the attack, including b-25 mitchells and beaufighters) when they bombed a japanese convoy from an average altitude of 7,000 ft (2,100 m), which dispersed the convoy formation and reduced their concentrated anti-aircraft firepower. A b-17 was shot down, and when japanese zero fighters machine-gunned some of the b-17 crew members who had parachuted out, three p-38s quickly entered the fray, claiming five zeros.[101][102][103][104] The assassination of admiral yamamoto[edit] ” Lightning participated in one of the most significant operations in the pacific theater of operations - the interception on april 18, 1943 of admiral isoroku yamamoto, the architect of japanese naval strategy in the pacific, including the attack on pearl harbor. When american codebreakers learned that he was flying to bougainville island for a front-line inspection, 16 p-38g lightning were sent to intercept long-range fighters, flying 435 miles (700 km) from guadalcanal at altitudes of 10 to 50 feet (3 to 20 m) above the ocean to avoid detection. “Lightning” met two mitsubishi g4m “betty” yamamoto high-speed bombers and six accompanying “zero” immediately upon arrival on the island. The first “betty” crashed in the jungle, and the second fell into a ditch near the coast. The americans lost one p-38. Japanese search teams found yamamoto's body at the crash site in the jungle the next day.[105] Track record[edit] The track record of the c-38 shows mixed results, which may reflect its employment more than the shortcomings in the work of the aircraft. Only the eighth air force had problems with the p-38 engine at high altitudes. One of the reasons for this was the inadequate cooling systems of the g and h models; the improved p-38 j and l were a huge success, flying from italy to germany at all altitudes.[66] before the appearance of the j-25 variant, german fighters easily avoided the p-38 due to the lack of dive flaps to resist compressibility during a dive. The german fighter pilots, who did not want to fight, performed the first half of the turn and continued steep dives, because they knew that the lightnings would not want to follow them. On the plus side, having two engines was a built-in insurance policy. Many pilots returned safely to base after engine failure en route or in combat. On march 3, 1944, the first allied fighters reached berlin with an unsuccessful escort mission. Lieutenant colonel jack jenkins of the 55th fighter group led a group of p-38h pilots who arrived with only half of their squad after damage from anti-aircraft shells and engine problems had done their job. On the way to berlin, jenkins reported one poorly functioning engine, which made him wonder if he would ever be able to return. The b-17s he was supposed to accompany never showed up, turning back to hamburg. Jenkins and his wingman were able to drop tanks and outrun enemy fighters to return home with three serviceable engines between them.[106] In the european theater of operations, the p-38 made 130,000 sorties with losses of 1.3% overall, which compares favorably with the p-51s, whose losses were 1.1%, given that the p-38s were significantly outnumbered and suffered from poorly thought-out tactics. Most of the p-38 sorties were flown in the period preceding the allied air superiority in europe, when the pilots were fighting a very determined and experienced enemy.[107] lieutenant colonel mark hubbard, an ardent critic of the aircraft, called it the third best allied fighter in europe.[108] the biggest advantages of the lightning were its long range, large payload, high speed, rapid climb and concentrated firepower. The p-38 was a formidable fighter, interceptor and attack aircraft. In the pacific theater of operations, p-38s shot down more than 1,800 japanese aircraft, with more than 100 pilots becoming aces, shooting down five or more enemy aircraft.[105] american fuel consumables contributed to the improvement of engine performance and maintenance indicators, and the power reserve was increased due to more economical mixtures. In the second half of 1944, p-38l pilots from dutch new guinea flew 950 miles (1,530 km), fought for 15 minutes and returned to base.[109] such long distances were invaluable until the p-47n and p-51d entered service. Post-war operations[edit] The end of the war left the us air force with thousands of p-38s, obsolete in the era of jet aircraft. Orders as early as 1887 were canceled.[110] the last p-38s in service with the us air force were withdrawn from service in 1949.[111] the last hundred models of the p-38l and f-5 lightning were acquired by italy under an agreement dated april 1946. Delivered after repairs at a rate of one per month, all of them were finally sent to military aviation by 1952. The lightnings served in 4° stormo and other units, including 3° stormo, performed reconnaissance flights over the balkans, ground attacks, naval cooperation and air superiority missions. Due to old engines, pilot errors and lack of operational experience, a large number of p-38s were lost in at least 30 accidents, many of which ended in death. Despite this, many italian pilots liked the p-38 because of its excellent visibility on the ground and stability during takeoff. The italian p-38s were discontinued in 1956; none of them survived the landfill.[112] Surplus p-38s were also used by other foreign air forces: 12 were sold to honduras, and 15 remained with china. Six f-5s and two unarmed black two-seat p-38s were operated by the dominican republic air force based at san isidro air base, dominican republic, in 1947. Most of the wartime lightenings available in the continental united states at the end of the war were put up for sale at $1,200 apiece; the rest were scrapped. P-38s in remote theaters of war were bulldozed into piles and abandoned or scrapped; very few escaped this fate. “ The cia's liberation air force flew one p-38m to support the guatemalan coup of 1954. On june 27, 1954, this aircraft dropped napalm bombs that destroyed the british cargo ship ss springfjord, which was loading guatemalan cotton[113] and coffee[114] for grace line[115] [could not be verified] in puerto san jose.[116] in 1957, five honduran p-38s bombed and shelled a village occupied by nicaraguan troops during a border dispute between the two countries regarding part of the department of gracias a dios.[117] P-38s were popular rivals in air races from 1946 to 1949, when brightly colored lightning made screeching turns around pylons in reno and cleveland. Lockheed test pilot tony levier was among those who bought the lightning, choosing the p-38j model and painting it red to make it stand out as an air racer and stuntman. Lefty gardner, a former b-24 and b-17 pilot and a member of the confederate air force, bought a p-38l-1-lo in mid-1944, which was modified into an f-5g. Gardner painted it white with red and blue trim and called it white lightnin'; he redesigned its turbo systems and intercoolers for optimal low-altitude operation and fitted it with p-38f-style air intakes for better streamlining. The white lightnin' was severely damaged in an emergency landing after an engine caught fire during a transit flight and was bought and restored with a shiny polished aluminum finish by the company that owns red bull. The plane is currently in austria. The f-5s were bought by aerial photography companies and used for mapping. Since the 1950s, the use of “lightning” has steadily declined, and there are still only a little more than two dozen, with few of them still flying. One example is a p-38l belonging to the lone star flight museum in galveston, texas, painted in the colors of charles h. Patt-patt-maru. Mcdonald's. Two other examples are f-5gs, which were owned and operated by kargl aerial surveys in 1946 and are currently located in chino, california, at the yanks aviation museum, and in mcminnville, oregon, at the evergreen aviation museum. The earliest surviving p-38, glacier girl, was recovered from the greenland ice cap in 1992, 50 years after it crashed there during a ferry flight to the uk, and after complete restoration flew again 10 years after its recovery. More than 10,000 lightnings were manufactured, which became the only us combat aircraft that remained in continuous production throughout the entire period of america's participation in world war ii. The lightning had a great impact on other aircraft; its wing was used in an enlarged form on the lockheed constellation.[119][page required] P-38d and p-38es[edit] Delivered and accepted variants of lightning production began with the p-38d model. Several “homemade” yp-38s, originally ordered under contract, were used as training and test aircraft. No bs or cs were transferred to the government, as the us air force assigned the suffix “d” to all aircraft with self-sealing fuel tanks and armor.[37] [page required] many secondary, but still initial teething tests were conducted using the earliest variants of d.[37] The first combat-ready lightning was the p-38e (and its photo-reconnaissance version of the f-4), which featured improved instruments, electrical and hydraulic systems. Partially during the production process, the old hamilton standard hydromatic hollow steel propellers were replaced with new electric duralumin curtiss propellers. The final (and now known) armament configuration was chosen, including four 50-inch (12.7 mm) machine guns with 500 rpg rounds and a 20-mm (79 inches) hispano automatic cannon with 150 rounds.[120] While the machine guns were positioned symmetrically in the nose on the p-38d, in the p-38e and later versions they were arranged “in a staggered order”, with the muzzles protruding from the nose in a relative length of approximately 1:4:6:2. This was done to ensure a direct feed of the ammunition belt into the weapon, since the earlier location led to jamming. The first p-38e left the factory in october 1941, when the battle for moscow flooded news feeds around the world. Due to the versatility, backup engines, and especially the high-speed and altitude characteristics of the aircraft, as in the case of later variants, more than a hundred p-38es were completed at the factory or converted in the field into a photo-reconnaissance version of the f-4, in which the guns were replaced with four cameras. Most of these early reconnaissance lightnings were left in the states for training, but the f-4 became the first lightnings to be used in combat in april 1942. P-38fs and p-38gs[edit] After 210 p-38es were built, they were followed, starting in february 1942, by the p-38f, which included racks inside the engines for fuel tanks or a total of 2,000 pounds (910 kg) of bombs. Early variants did not enjoy a high reputation for maneuverability, although they could be maneuverable at low altitudes if piloted by a capable pilot, taking advantage of the condescending stall characteristics of the p-38. Starting with the p-38f-15 model, the “combat maneuver” setting was added to the flaps of the p-38 fowler. When deployed at 8° for maneuver, the flaps allowed the p-38 to overtake many modern single-engine fighters due to some additional drag. However, early versions were hampered by high aileron control efforts and low initial roll speed,[121] and all such features required the pilot to gain experience with the aircraft,[37] which partly became an additional reason why lockheed sent its representative to england and then to the pacific theater military operations. The aircraft was still experiencing serious teething problems, and was also becoming a victim of “urban legends”, mainly related to inapplicable twin-engine engines that were designed from the aircraft by lockheed.[37][page required] in addition to this, early versions had the reputation of being a “widow maker”, as they could go into an irrevocable dive due to the sound effect of the surface at high subsonic speeds. The 527 p-38fs were heavier, with more powerful engines that consumed more fuel, and were unpopular in air warfare in northern europe.[37] since the heavier engines had reliability problems, and with them, without external fuel tanks, the flight range of the p-38f was reduced, and since the fuel tanks themselves were not enough, since fate in the battle of the atlantic had not yet turned in the direction of the allies, the aircraft became relatively unpopular in the minds of the headquarters of the bomber command planning, despite the fact that it is the longest-range fighter, which was first placed at the disposal of the 8th air army in sufficient numbers to perform long-distance escort tasks.[37] [need a page] however, general spaatz, then commander of the 8th air force of great britain, said of the p-38f: “i would rather have an aircraft that flies like hell and that has a few flaws than one that doesn't fly like hell and has a few wrong things in it.”[91] The p-38f was followed in june 1942 by the p-38g, using more powerful 1,400 hp (1,000 kw) engines each and equipped with a better radio station. A dozen planned production p-38gs were put aside to serve as prototypes for what became the p-38j with even more powerful allison v-1710f-17 engines (1,425 hp (1063 kw) each) in upgraded booms, which featured chin-mounted intercoolers instead of the original system in the leading edge of the wings and more efficient radiators. However, lockheed subcontractors were initially unable to supply both burbank production lines with a sufficient number of new main intercoolers and radiators. Military production planners did not want to sacrifice production, and one of the two remaining prototypes received new engines, but retained the old advanced intercoolers and radiators. Like the p-38h, 600 such lightnings with an improved 20 mm cannon and a bomb capacity of 3,200 pounds (1,500 kg) were produced on one line starting in may 1943, while the almost final p-38j began production on the second line in august 1943. The eighth air force experienced problems with high altitude and cold weather, which, while not unique to the aircraft, were arguably more severe, as the turbochargers upgrading the allisons had their own reliability issues, making the aircraft more unpopular with senior officers out of order.[37][page required] this situation was not repeated on all other fronts, where the command demanded as many p-38s as possible.[37] [page required] the characteristics of the p-38g and p-38h models were limited by the intermediate cooling system integrated into the leading edge of the wing, which was designed for less powerful yp-38 engines. At higher boost levels, the charge air temperature in the new engine will exceed the limits recommended by allison and may cause detonation when operating at high power for extended periods of time. Reliability was also not the only problem. For example, the reduced power settings required for the p-38h did not allow the flaps to be used effectively for maneuvering at high altitude.[122] all these problems really manifested themselves in the unplanned p-38h and accelerated the possible replacement of lightning in the 8th air army; fortunately, the 15th air army was glad to receive them. Part of the production of the p-38g was redirected from the assembly line to the f-5a reconnaissance aircraft. The f-5a was modified into an experimental two-seat reconnaissance configuration as the xf-5d, with a plexiglass nose, two machine guns and additional cameras in the tail beams. P-38j, p-38l[edit] The p-38j was introduced in august 1943. The turbocharging intermediate cooling system on previous versions was placed on the leading edges of the wings and proved vulnerable to combat damage and could burst if the wrong series of controls was activated by mistake. In the p-38j series, the streamlined nacelles of the previous lightnings were modified to place an intercooler radiator between the oil radiators, forming a “chin” that visually distinguished the model j from its predecessors. While the p-38j used the same v-1710-89/91 engines as the h model, the new core-type intercooler lowered the intake manifold temperature more efficiently and allowed a significant increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was equipped with 55 us gallon (210 l) fuel tanks that filled the space previously occupied by the intercooling tunnels, but these were omitted on early p-38j units due to limited availability.[123] The latest 210 j models, designated p-38j-25-lo, solved the compressibility problem by adding a set of flaps for recovery during an electrically powered dive directly behind the engines on the lower centerline of the wings. Thanks to these improvements, the usaf pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 mph (970 km/h), although the indicated flight speed was later adjusted to account for compression error, and the actual dive speed was lower.[124] lockheed manufactured more than 200 retrofitting kits for installation on the p-38j-10-lo and j-20-lo were already in europe, but the us air force c-54 transporting them was shot down by a royal air force pilot who mistook a douglas transport aircraft for a german focke-wulf condor.[125] unfortunately, the kits were lost during the flight of lockheed test pilot tony levier on a four-month tour of p-38 bases to boost morale. Piloting a new lightning called snafuperman, modified to the full specifications of the p-38j-25-lo at the lockheed modification center near belfast, levier attracted all the attention of pilots by regularly performing maneuvers during march 1944, which the usual wisdom of the 8th air army considered suicidal. It turned out to be too little, too late, because the decision had already been made to rearm with mustangs.[126] The p-38j-25-lo production unit also introduced hydraulically enhanced ailerons, which was one of the first cases when such a system was adapted to a fighter. This significantly improved the lightning's roll speed and reduced the pilot's steering efforts. This production unit and the next model of the p-38l are considered the final “lightning”, and lockheed has increased production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of “lightning” every month. Two p-38ks were developed from 1942 to 1943, one official and one internal lockheed experiment. The first was actually a battered rp-38e “piggyback” test mule, previously used by lockheed to test the p-38j intercooler installation, now equipped with hamilton standard bladed “highly active” hydraulic screws similar to those used on the p-47. Larger diameter spinners were required for the new propellers, and the rough hand-molded mule sheet steel fairings were further stretched to fit the spinners into the nacelles. It retained its “piggyback” configuration, which allowed the observer to ride behind the pilot. With a lockheed aaf representative as a passenger and a maneuvering flap deployed to compensate for the army conditions of a hot day, the old k-mule was still climbing to an altitude of 45,000 feet (14,000 m). With a fresh coat of paint covering the rough handmade steel hoods, this rp-38e serves as a replacement for the “p-38k-1-lo” in the model's only image..[127] 12- i model g the original prototype p-38j was renamed p-38k-1-lo and equipped with the aforementioned blade propellers and new allison v-1710-75/77 (f15r/l) powerplants with a capacity of 1,875 hp (1,398 kw) in case of emergency power supply. These engines had a ratio of 2.36 to 1, as opposed to the standard p-38 ratio of 2 to 1. The u.S. Air force took delivery in september 1943 at eglin field. During the tests, the p-38k-1 reached 432 mph (695 km/h) at military power and is projected to exceed 450 mph (720 km/h) at emergency power with a similar increase in load and range. The initial climb rate was 4,800 ft (1,500 m)/min and the ceiling was 46,000 ft (14,000 m). He reached 20,000 feet (6,100 m) in exactly five minutes; this with a layer of camouflage paint applied, which added weight and resistance. Despite the fact that it surpassed the latest and best fighters of all aaf manufacturers in terms of climb and speed, the military production council refused to authorize the production of the p-38k due to a two- to three-week break in production required to make changes to the fairing for the revised rotators and higher thrust.[127] some also questioned allison's ability to supply the f15 engine in large numbers.[128] no matter how promising it looked, the p-38k project was stopped. The p-38l was the most numerous variant of the lightning: 3,923 aircraft were built, 113 of them by consolidated-vultee at their nashville plant. It entered service with the u.S. Air force in june 1944, just in time to support the allied invasion of france on d-day. Lockheed lightning production featured a suffix consisting of a production unit number followed by “lo”, e.G. “P-38l-1-lo”, while consolidated-vultee production featured a unit number followed by “vn”, e.G. “P-38l-5-vn.” The p-38l was the first lightning equipped with zero-length rocket launchers. Seven high-speed aircraft missiles (hvars) on pylons were placed under each wing, and later five missiles were placed on each wing on christmas tree-type launch racks, which added 1,365 pounds (619 kg) to the aircraft.[129][page required] the p-38l also had reinforced storage supports, allowing it to carry 2,000 pounds (900 kg) of bombs or 300 gallons (1,100 liters) of drop tanks. Lockheed modified 200 production p-38j aircraft, turning them into unarmed f-5b photo reconnaissance aircraft, while hundreds of other p-38j and p-38l were modified at lockheed's dallas modification center to become f-5cs, f-5es, f-5fs or f-5gs. Several p-38ls were modified in the field to become two-seat tp-38l familiarization simulators. In june 1948 and after, the remaining j and l variants received the designations zf-38j and zf-38l, while the designation “zf” (meaning “obsolete fighter”) replaced the “p for pursuit” category. ” The lightenings of the latest model were delivered unpainted in accordance with the policy of the us air force established in 1944. At first, the field units tried to paint them, as the pilots were worried that they would be too noticeable for the enemy, but the reduction in weight and drag proved to be a minor advantage in combat. The p-38l-5, the most common sub-variant of the p-38l, had a modified cabin heating system consisting of a plug socket in the cockpit to which the pilot could connect the wire of his thermal suit to increase comfort. These lightnings also received improved v-1710-112/113 (f30r/l) engines, and this significantly reduced the number of engine failure problems that occur at high altitude, which are usually associated with european operations. Trackers, night fighters and other options[edit] Lightning has been modified for other roles. In addition to the f-4 and f-5 reconnaissance variants, a number of p-38j and p-38l were modified in the field as bomber “pathfinders” or “dropsnouts”[130] equipped with a norden bomb sight or h2x radar system. Such “pathfinders” led the formation of other p-38s, each of which was loaded with two bombs weighing 2,000 pounds (907 kg); the entire formation released its ammunition when the “pathfinder” did it.[131] A number of lightnings were modified as night fighters. Several field or experimental modifications with various equipment eventually led to the creation of the “official” p-38m night fighter, or night lightning. A total of 75 p-38ls were modified to the night lightning configuration, painted flat black with conical masking devices on the guns, an an/aps-6 radar module under the nose and a second cockpit with a raised visor behind the pilot's visor for the radar operator. The overhead space in the rear cockpit was limited, which required radar operators to be preferably short.[132][page required] Turbochargers were removed from one of the first production p-38s, and the auxiliary cabin was placed in one of the booms to check how flight crews would react to such an “asymmetric” cabin layout.[133][page needed] one p-38e was equipped with an elongated central nacelle to accommodate a cockpit with two seats and dual controls, and was later equipped with a laminar flow wing. At the very beginning of the war in the pacific ocean, a scheme was proposed to equip the “lightning” floats so that they could make long-distance flights by ferry. The floats had to be removed before the aircraft entered combat. There were concerns that salt water splashes could cause corrosion of the tail, so in march 1942, the p-38e 41-1986 was modified: the tailplane was raised by about 16-18 inches (41-46 cm), the booms were lengthened by 2 feet, and a second rear-facing seat was added for the observer to monitor the effectiveness of the new layout. The second version was created on the same glider with two arrows, which received a large area of the side plane to increase the vertical rudders. This device was removed, and the last third version was made, in which the arrows were returned to normal length, but the tail section was raised by 33 inches (84 cm). All three tailplane modifications were designed by george h. “Bert” estabrook. The final version was used for a quick series of dive tests on december 7, 1942, during which milo burcham performed test maneuvers, and kelly johnson watched them from the back seat. Johnson came to the conclusion that the raised tail of a floating aircraft does not provide any advantages in solving the problem of compressibility. The airframe of this p-38e testbed was never equipped with floats, and this idea was quickly abandoned, since the us navy proved that they had sufficient payload capacity to keep up with the p-38 deliveries to the south pacific.[134] Another p-38e was used in 1942 to tow a waco amphibious glider as a demonstration. However, it turned out that many other aircraft, such as douglas c-47 skytrains, were available for towing gliders, and the lightning was spared this duty. Standard lightenings were used as vehicles for crew and cargo in the south pacific. They were equipped with capsules attached to underwing pylons, replacing drop tanks or bombs that could carry one passenger in a prone position or cargo. It was a very uncomfortable way to fly. Some of the capsules were not even equipped with a window so that the passenger could see outside or let in light. Lockheed has offered a deck-mounted version of the lightning model 822 for the united states navy. The model 822 was supposed to have folding wings, a locking hook and a more durable undercarriage for cargo transportation. The navy was not interested, as they considered the lightning too big for carrier operations and in any case did not like liquid-cooled engines, and the model 822 never went beyond the paper stage. However, the navy did operate four f-5b land-based aircraft in north africa, inherited from the us air force and renamed the fo-1. The p-38j was used in experiments with an unusual aerial refueling scheme, in which a fighter caught on a drop of a tank dragged by a cable from a bomber. The us air force managed to do this job, but decided it was impractical. The p-38j was also equipped with an experimental retractable landing gear on snow skis, but this idea was never adopted. After the war, the p-38l was experimentally equipped with three 60-inch (15.2 mm) machine guns. A caliber cartridge .The 60 inch (15.2 mm) was developed early in the war for the infantry anti-tank rifle, a type of weapon developed by a number of countries in the 1930s when tanks were lighter, but by 1942 the armor had become too strong for this caliber. Another p-38l was modified after the war as a “super strafer”, with eight 50-inch (12.7 mm) machine guns in the bow and a compartment under each wing with two 50-inch (12.7 mm) caliber guns, for a total of 12 machine guns. Nothing came out of this appeal either. Options[edit] Xp-38: us army air forces designation for one lockheed model 22 prototype first flown in 1939[135]yp-38: redesigned pre-production batch with armament, built 13[135]p-38: the first production version with a 0.5-inch gun and a 37-mm gun, built 30[135][136] xp-38a: thirtieth p-38 modified with pressurized cabin[135][136]lightning i: the former air force order for 667 aircraft (was reduced to 143 lighting is), it was accepted by the royal air force, three were delivered to the royal air force, and the rest of the order was transferred to the usaaf. It used c-series v-1710-33 engines without turbochargers and right-hand propeller rotation (not counter).[137][138] lightning ii: royal air force designation for a cancelled order for 524 aircraft with v-1710 f-series engines, the only one built was retained by the usaf for testing* the remainder of the order was completed as p-38f-13-lo, p-38f-15-lo, p-38g-13-lo and p-38g-15-lo.[137][138] p-322-i: 22 lightning is out of 143 built were retained by the usaf for training and testing. Most of them were unarmed, although some retained the lighting i armament, consisting of two 50 cal pistols and two 30 cal pistols.[135][139]p-322-ii: 121 lightning is have been retrofitted with v-1710-27/-29 and is used for training. Most of them were unarmed.[135][139] p-38b: proposed p-38a variant, not built[135]p-38c: proposed p-38a variant, not built[135]p-38d: serial version with modified tail design, self-sealing fuel tanks, 36 built[135]p-38e: serial version with revised hydraulic system, 20 mm gun instead of 37 mm earlier versions, 210 built[135] floating aircraft p-38e: the proposed version of the p-38e floating aircraft with raised tail beams and equipped with dropable and fuel-filled floats, one prototype was converted from p-38e 41-1986 with modified tail beams, but was not equipped with floats. It has not entered production.[140]p-38f: serial version with internal underwing racks for drop tanks or 2000-pound bombs, 527 built[135]p-38g: serial version with modified radio equipment, built 1082[135]p-38h: production version capable of carrying 3,200 pounds of underwing bombs and automatic oil cooler flaps, 601 built[135] p-38j: this production version was built with improvements in each batch, including chin radiators, flat bulletproof windshields, reinforced ailerons and increased fuel capacity.* 2,970 were built. Some of them have been modified to the pathfinder configuration and to the f-5c, f-5e and f-5f.[135]p-38k: with 1425 hp engines. And with large wide-bladed screws, one was built * the p-38e was also converted to the same standard as this one.[135]p-38l: with 1,600 hp engines, 3,923 aircraft were built, including 113 built in vultee*. Later conversions were made to pathfinders and f-5g.[135]tp-38l: two p-38ls were converted into tandem simulators.[135]p-38m: conversion of the p-38l into a radar-equipped night fighter[135]f-4: photo-reconnaissance version of the p-38e, 99 built[141]f-4a: photo-reconnaissance version of the p-38f, 20 built[141]f-5a: reconnaissance version of the p-38g, built 181[141]f-5b: reconnaissance version of the p-38j, 200 were built, and four were later sent to the us navy as the fo-1.[141]f-5c: reconnaissance version of the p-38j, 123 refits[141]xf-5d: recumbent observer variant, one refit from the f-5a[141]f-5e: reconnaissance variant, converted from p-38j and p-38l, 705 converted[141]f-5f: p-38l reconnaissance variant conversions[141]f-5g: like the p-38l reconnaissance variant conversions, they had a camera configuration different from the f-5f.[141]xfo-1: us navy designation for four f-5bs operated for evaluation.[142]operators[edit] Australia republic of china dominican republic free france france honduras kingdom of italy italy portugal united kingdom united statescivil Colombianoted p-38[edit] Yippy[edit/edit code] 5000- th built by lightning, p-38j-20-lo, 44-23296, was painted bright red, and the name yippee was written in large white letters on the underside of the wings, as well as the signatures of hundreds of factory workers. This and other aircraft were used by a handful of lockheed test pilots, including milo burcham, jimmy mattern and tony levier, in remarkable flight demonstrations, performing tricks such as slow rolls at treetop level with a single feathered propeller to dispel the myth of the p-38's unmanageability.[143][144] Glacier girl[edit] 15 on july 1942, a plane of six p-38s and two b-17 bombers with 25 crew members on board took off from presque isle air base. In maine, he headed to the uk. This was followed by a painful and life-threatening landing of the entire squadron on a remote ice cap in greenland. None of the crew died, and they were all rescued and returned home safely after spending several days on the ice. Fifty years later, a small group of aviation enthusiasts decided to find these aircraft, which became known as the “lost squadron”, and return one of the lost p-38. This proved to be no easy task, as the planes were buried under a 25-story layer of ice and drifted more than a mile from their original location. The restored p-38, dubbed glacier girl, was eventually restored to airworthiness. The surviving aircraft[edit] Of the ten thousand aircraft built, 26 survived, of which ten are airworthy. Famous p-38 pilots[edit] Richard bong and thomas mcguire[edit] The american ace of aces and his closest competitor both threw lightning bolts and counted 40 and 38 victories, respectively.[145] majors richard i. “Dick” bong and thomas b. “Tommy” mcguire of the u.S. Air force competed for first place. Both men were awarded the medal of honor. Mcguire was killed in a dogfight in january 1945 over the philippines, after amassing 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranked american ace. Bong was transferred back to the united states as an american ace of aces, committing 40 kills and becoming a test pilot. He was killed on august 6, 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on japan, when his lockheed p-80 shooting star fighter jet caught fire on takeoff. Charles lindbergh[edit] Charles lindbergh became famous for his transatlantic solo flight before the war. During world war ii, he was a civilian working for vought in the south pacific. He was treated preferentially as a visiting colonel. In holland, lindbergh joined the 475th fighter group, which flew the p-38. Despite the fact that lindbergh was new to this aircraft, he played an important role in extending the range of the p-38 through improved throttle settings or engine tilt methods, in particular by reducing engine rpm to 1600 rpm, adjusting carburetors to automatic tilt and flying with the 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed, which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gallons per hour, which is about 2.6 miles per gallon. Such a combination of settings was considered dangerous and could lead to a violation of the composition of the fuel mixture, which would lead to an explosion.[146] While in the 475th regiment, he took part in a number of sorties. On july 28, 1944, lindbergh shot down a mitsubishi ki-51 “sonya”, which was operated by the veteran commander of the 73rd independent flight chutai of the imperial japanese army, captain saburo shimada. In a lengthy, tortuous dogfight in which many participants ran out of ammunition, shimada turned his plane straight at lindbergh, who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction triggered by shimada's apparent frontal ramming attack. Struck by cannon and machine-gun fire, the sony's propeller slowed down noticeably, but shimada kept his course. Lindbergh stopped at the last moment to avoid a collision when the damaged sonya entered a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. The unofficial murder was not included in the military record of the 475th regiment. On august 12, 1944, lindbergh left holland to return to the united states.[147] Charles macdonald[edit] The third - ranking american ace of the pacific theater of operations , charles h. Mcdonald, flew a lightning against the japanese and committed 27 murders[145] on his putt putt maru aircraft.. Martin james monty[edit] Martin james monty was an american pilot who defected to the axis forces in a stolen f-5e lightning, which was handed over to the luftwaffe by zirkus rosarius for subsequent testing. Robin olds[edit] Robin olds was the last p-38 ace in the 8th air force and the last in the eto. Flying the p-38j, he shot down five german fighters in two separate missions over france and germany. He subsequently switched to the p-51 and committed seven more murders. After world war ii, he flew f-4 phantom ii fighters in vietnam, ending his career as a brigadier general with 16 killed. John h. Ross[edit] Ross is an honored world war ii pilot who flew 96 combat missions as part of the u.S. Army air forces as part of the 7th reconnaissance group of the 8th u.S. Air force as part of the 22nd reconnaissance squadron. Ross flew a lockheed p-38 lightning as a photo reconnaissance pilot with the royal air force's mount farm in england during the war. He received 11 medals and was twice awarded the distinguished flying cross for missions that were integral to the allied victory at the battle of the bulge. Antoine de saint-exupery[edit] At noon on july 31, 1944, the famous aviation pioneer and writer antoine de saint-exupery (“night flight”, “wind, sand and stars” and “the little prince”) disappeared. On his p-38 of the french air force groupe de chasse ii/33, after taking off from borgo porret, corsica. His health, both physical and mental, was deteriorating. It was said that saint-exupery periodically fell into depression, and there was talk of depriving him of his flight status.[148][149][note 4] he flew over the mediterranean sea, from corsica to mainland france, in an unarmed photo-reconnaissance version of the f-5b p-38j, [note 5] described as a “war-worn, unfit ship.”[150][page required] In 2000, a french scuba diver discovered partial remnants of a lightning strike that spread over several thousand square meters of the seabed of the mediterranean sea off the coast of marseille. In april 2004, it was confirmed that the recovered component serial numbers belong to the f-5b lightning saint-exupery. Only a small amount of wreckage was recovered.[151] in june 2004, the found parts and fragments were transferred to the french air and space museum in le bourget, paris, where the life of saint-exupery is immortalized in a special exhibition.[152] In 1981, as well as in 2008, two luftwaffe fighter pilots, respectively robert heichele and horst rippert, separately claimed to have shot down the p-38 saint-exupery.[153][154][155] both statements were unverifiable and possibly self-promotion, since there was no mention of such a downed aircraft in any of the combat reports of their units during that period..[156][157] Adrian warburton[edit] A well-known royal air force photo reconnaissance pilot, wing commander adrian warburton dso* dfc** was appointed a royal air force liaison officer to the 7th photo reconnaissance group of the us air force. On april 12, 1944, he flew a p-38 along with others to photograph targets in germany. Warburton failed to arrive at the meeting place and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in germany from a crashed plane.[158][159] Technical specifications (p-38l)[edit] Lockheed p-38h/j/l pilot data flight operation manual,[161] p-38h/j/l pilot flight operation manual[162] General characteristics Crew: 1length: 37 feet 10 inches (11.53 m)wingspan: 52 ft 0 in (15.85 m)height: 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) wing area: 327.5 sq ft (30.43 m2)aspect ratio: 8,26[163]profile: root: naca 23016; hint: naca 4412[164]empty weight: 12,800 lbs (5,806 kg) [163]gross weight: 17,500 lbs (7,938 kg) [163]maximum takeoff weight: 21,600 lbs (9,798 kg)powerplant: 2 × allison v-1710 (-111 left rotation and -113 right rotation) liquid-cooled and turbocharged v-12 piston engine, 1600 hp (1200 kw) each wep at 60 inches (2,032 bar) and 3000 rpm propellers: 3-blade electric curtiss propellers with constant rotation speed (lh and rh rotation)performance Maximum speed: 414 mph (666 km/h, 360 kn) at military power: 1,425 hp (1,063 kw) at 54 inches (1,829 bar), 3,000 rpm and 25,000 ft (7,620 m)[165] cruising speed: 275 mph (443 km/h, 239 kn) stall speed: 105 mph (169 km/h, 91 kn)combat range: 1,300 miles (2,100 km, 1,100 mph)crossing distance: 3,300 miles (5,300 km, 2,900 mph)operational ceiling: 44,000 ft (13,000 m)rate of climb: 4750 ft/min (24.1 m/s)lift-to-drag ratio: 13.5wing load: 53.4 lbs/sq. Foot (261 kg/m2) [163]power/weight: 0.16 hp/lb (0.26 kw/kg) Drag area: 8.78 sq ft (0.82 m2)[163]drag coefficient at zero lift: 0.0268[163] armament Guns: - 1×20 mm hispano m2© cannon with 150 rounds - 4×m2 browning 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) machine gun with 500 rpg. - Internal support points: - 2× 2000 lb (907 kg) bombs or drop tanks; or - 2× 1000 pounds (454 kg) of bombs or drop tanks, plus either - 4× 500 pounds (227 kg) of bombs, or - 4× 250 pounds (113 kg) of bombs; or - 10× 5 in (127 mm) hvars (high-speed aircraft missiles); or - 2× 500 lb (227 kg) bombs; or - 2× 250 pounds (113 kg) of bombs Popular culture[edit] Harley earl arranged for several of his designers to view the prototype yp-38 shortly before world war ii, and his design directly inspired the tail fins of the 1948-1949 cadillac.[166] The p-38 also served as a source of inspiration for raymond lowy and his design team at studebaker for the 1950 and 1951 studebakers models.[167] The howling of the speeder engines in return of the jedi was partially achieved by recording the noise of the p-38 engine combined with the noise of the north american p-51 mustang.[168] The popular eight-bit video game “1942” puts the player in command of a p-38 flying over the pacific ocean, fighting japanese “zero” and a nakajima g10n bomber. The game was created by the japanese company capcom, designed for western markets and ends with the player raiding tokyo. Notable appearances in the media[edit] Documentaries[edit/edit code] Sheet metal repair on p-38 lightning (1945, black and white, 19:00). This educational production and training film from lockheed shows standard aviation tools and techniques that are still used to repair aluminum aircraft. Film from tm technologies.Yamamoto has been shot down! (1944, black and white, 4:00) shows the p-38 squadron that shot down admiral yamamoto during a long-range interception in the pacific ocean. The film includes alleged footage from the p-38 gun camera showing the admiral's betty bomber falling in flames. Dick bong: pacific ace (1944, b/w, 4:00) this short documentary pays tribute to richard “dick” bong, the best american ace who flew the p-38 during world war ii.Angel in overalls (1945, black and white, 15:00) this film was designed to show american workers of the lockheed p-38 production line in a variety of roles.[169]see also[edit] Aviation portallockheed martin f-35 lightning iirelated developments Lockheed xp-49lockheed xp-58 chain lightningaircraft of comparable role, configuration and era Bristol beaufightermosquito de havillandfocke-wulf fw 187fokker j.Ihughes xf-11kawasaki ki-96messerschmitt me 210mitsubishi ki-83nakajima j5nnorthrop p-61 black widowwestland whirlwind similar lists List of aircraft of the second world warlist of fighterslist of lockheed aircraftlist of military aircraft of the united statesnotes[edit]

The 1939 edition of the german aviation manual already contained a detailed drawing and a close-up photo of this prototype, along with detailed information about the engines, indicated that its maximum speed was supposed to be 640-680 km/h (400-420 mph). Dimensions, equipment and armament were listed as unknown.[33] turbochargers were not secret and were not limited to the united states government. Similar designs were known to french and swiss firms. France and the uk didn't want turbochargers; they never used them, and they knew that the american ones were in short supply, and did not want the delivery to be delayed[55] some of the fastest post-war racing p-38s were almost identical in layout to the p-322-ii.Saint-exupery suffered from recurring pain and immobility due to previous injuries sustained as a result of numerous plane crashes, to the extent that he could not put on his flight suit on his own. After his death, vague suggestions were made that his disappearance was the result of suicide, and not a breakdown of the aircraft or combat losses.[Quote needed]
Master sergeant. John deshetler (november 20, 2006), “lightning” strikes the 1st pursuit group, u.S. Air force “honduran air force”. Аэрофлайт.Со.Ик . Verified: october 10, 2010. A b c donald, david (1997). Encyclopedia of world aviation (updated edition). Leicester: blitz editions. Pp. 581. Isbn 1-85605-375-x. Johnsen, frederick (2003). “4”. In the book by steve hansen (ed.). Weapons of the eighth air force. St. Paul, minnesota: mbi. P. 75. Isbn 978-0-7603-1340-4. Verified on january 25, 2020. Its ability to carry two 150-gallon or 300-gallon containers made it a natural for long-distance escorts… “Lightning r-38”. National museum of the united states air force. Verified on january 21, 2007. P-38: when lightning strikes, lockheed martin stanaway 1997 pilot training manual for p-38 lightning. Winston-salem, north carolina, usa: aaf headquarters, aviation safety administration, safety training department. August 1, 1945. Page 7. Isbn 9780359088119. Archived from the original on january 6, 2022. Verified on january 6, 2022. Two turbochargers provide allison engines with sea-level power at extremely high altitudes. Blake, stephen (october 4, 2020). “Chapter 8”. Lightning strikes: lockheed r-38. Stroud, uk: fonthill media. P. 300. Isbn 9781781557884. Verified on january 7, 2022. …The p-38 was a very quiet aircraft because its exhaust fumes came out through turbochargers at the top of the aircraft… Gunston, bill (1980). Planes of the 2nd world war. New york: crescent books. Pp. 133. Isbn 0-517-31680-3. Body 2001, p. Xvi. Body 1991, p. 16-17. Body 1991, p. 14. Hanson, dave. Lockheed p-38 lightning. Dave's warbirds. Verified: january 21, 2007. Bodie 1991, p. 19. A b c bodie, 2001, p. 51. A b current biography yearbook. H. W. Wilson co. 1969. P. 199. At that time, lockheed did not yet have an official engineering building, and so johnson and his staff improvised a development plant using unoccupied corners in hangars and an old distillery. The result of this skunk works approach was the legendary p-38 lightning. “Xp-38 design drawings: a diagram of the configurations considered for the prototype.” National association and museum p-38. Verified: january 21, 2007. Body 2001, p. 19. Body 2001, p. 44. Chinn, george (1951). “37-mm automatic guns”. Machine gun. Volume. 3. Washington, dc, usa: united states government printing office. Page 31. Accessed january 7, 2022. Gun, automatic 37mm t9 - gun t2 has been modified… Until, in the end, the gun, which received the designation t9, was not ready for testing. In september 1939, this gun was installed… On the p-38 and p-39 fighters… Which was standardized as m4.Bodie 2001, p. 80.Coggins, edward v. (2000). Wings that stay in place. Turner. P. 31. Isbn 9781563115684. Graham, arthur (january 1944). “Facts about the firepower of fighters.” Popular science literature. Pp. 76-83, 186. Graham says that the lightning produces 168 rounds per second (combined cannon and mg), and the rate of fire is 547 pounds per minute (9.1 pounds per second). The 20 mm cannon fires at a muzzle velocity of 2,850 feet/sec, the weight of the projectile is 0.29 pounds (130 grams) at 650 rpm (10.8 rpm). The .50-caliber machine gun shoots at a speed of 2,900 feet per second, the weight of the projectile is 800 grams (51.8 grams), at 850 rpm. A b c lockheed p-38 lightning. Aviation-history.Com . Verified: january 21, 2007. Loftin l.K. Jr. 1985 “striving for performance: the evolution of modern aircraft. Nasa sp-468”. Nasa scientific and technical information department. Washington. Verified: april 22, 2006 thornborough, anthony m.; Davis, peter e. (1988). Lockheed blackbirds. Surrey: i. Allan. P. 8. Isbn 978-0-7110-1794-8. Body 2001, p. 245. O'leary, michael. “Conquering the sky!” Air classics, april 2005. Verified: january 26, 2007. Body 2001, p. 32. Kochivar, ben (october 6, 1964). The collier trophy. See. Volume 28, no. 20. Page 36. He calls his development plants “skunk works”. There were five of them - the first, abandoned distillery. Body 2001, p. 33. Schnitzler r. J.V. Feuchter and r. Schultz, eds. Handbuch der luftfahrt (aviation manual) (in german). Munich: j.F. Lehmanns verlag, 1939. Pg386-7 body 2001, p. 36. Body 2001, p. 40. Knaak, marcel s. (1988). Encyclopedia of aircraft and missile systems of the united states air force / 2 bombers after world war ii, 1945-1973. Washington, dc: office of u.S. Air force history. P. 3. Isbn 0-912799-59-5. A b c d e f g h i kaidin, martin. The fork-tailed devil, new york: ballantine books, 1983. Isbn 0-345-31292-9. Parker, dana t. Building a victory: aircraft production in the los angeles area during world war ii, pp. 59, 75-6, cypress, california, 2013. 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New york: random house. P. 56. Isbn 0-394-58434-1. Bauger, joe. “Lockheed p-38 lightning”. Archived on may 26, 2012 in joe bauger's encyclopedia of american military aviation wayback machine, june 13, 1999. Verified: january 29, 2007. Bauger, joe. “Lockheed xp-38a lightning”. Encyclopedia of american military aviation by joe bauger, june 13, 1999. Verified: january 29, 2007. Bauger, joe. “Lockheed r-38d lightning”. Encyclopedia of american military aviation by joe bauger, june 13, 1999. Verified: january 29, 2007. Body 2001, p. 46. Body 2001, p. 45, 47. A b bauger, joe. “Lightning i for the raf.” Encyclopedia of american military aviation joe bauger, december 2, 2002. Verified: january 29, 2007. A b c d e bodie 2001, p. 60. Bodie 2001, p. 63. A b bodie 2001, p. 61. A b c bodie 2001, p. 64. Mason, tim (2010). The secret years: flight tests at boscombe, 1935-1945. Manchester: cresy. Pp. 204-205. Isbn 978-1-902109-14-5. Body 2001, pp. 111-116. Yenne, bill (1987). Lockheed. Crescent books. Page 60. Isbn 9780517604717. A b bodie 2001, pp. 89-91. Mcfarland, stephen lee; newton, wesley phillips (2006). To command the sky: the battle for air superiority over germany, 1942-1944. Tuscaloosa: university of alabama press. P. 103. Isbn 978-0-8173-5346-9. Body 2001, p. 101-102. A b c d bauger, joe. “P-38 in the european theater”. Encyclopedia of american military aviation by joe bauger, june 13, 1999. Verified: february 4, 2007. Maloney, edward t. Lockheed p-38 “lightning”, aero series, volume 19, fallbrook, california: aero publishers, inc. 1968. P. 4. Stanaway, john; mellinger, george (2001). P-39 airacobra aces of world war 2. Oxford: osprey aviation. P. 43. Isbn 1-84176-204-0. Stanaway, john k. R-38 - lightning aces of eto/mto. New york: osprey, 1997. Isbn 1-85532-698-1. A b stanaway 2014, p. 71. A b blake, steve (2012). P-38 lightning aces of the 82nd fighter group. Botley, oxford: bloomsbury. P. 14. Isbn 978-1780968711. A b stanaway 2014, p. 72. Bergstrom, christer (2019). Black cross/red star : air war over the eastern front. Volume 4, from stalingrad to kuban, 1942-1943. Eskilstuna: vaktel books. Pp. 315-316. Isbn 978-91-88441-21-8. A b stanaway 2014, p. 73. A b stanaway 2014, p. 74. A b scatts, jerry (1994). Bf 109 - aces of north africa and the mediterranean. London: osprey. P. 61. Isbn 1-85532-448-2. Laurier, jim (2016). A fighter! : Ten world war ii killer planes. Minneapolis, mn: voyageur press. P. 54. Isbn 978-0760353011. Sims, edward h. (1980). Tactics and strategy of fighters, 1914-1970 (2nd ed.). Fallbrook, california: aero pub. Pp. 134-135. Isbn 0-8168-8795-0. Galland. Adolf. The first and the last: the rise and fall of the german fighter forces, 1938-1945. New york: henry holt and company, 1954. There is no isbn. Rymashevsky, michael (july 1994). “Playing your aces.” The world of computer games. P. 102. Garello, giancarlo. The leader of guerra. Aerei jugoslavi, inglesi, statunitensi, belgi 1940-1943. Torino: la bancarella aeronautica, 2007. P. 68 without isbn. (In italian) dimensione cielo. Caccia assalto 3 - aerei italiani nella 2a guerra mondiale (in italian). Rome: edizioni bizzarri, 1973. No isbn. P. 72. A b c cesarani, david; cavanaugh, sarah (2004). The holocaust : critical concepts in historical research. London: rutledge. Pp. 234-235. Isbn 0-415-31871-8. Stanaway, john (1998). P-38 - lightning aces eto/mto. London: osprey aerospace. Pp. 43-46. Isbn 1-85532-698-1. Hatch, herbert (2000). Ace and his angel: memoirs of a fighter pilot of the second world war. [Paducah, kentucky]: turner publishing company. Pp. 59-67. Isbn 1-56311-574-3. Neulen, hans werner (2005). In the skies of europe: the luftwaffe allied air forces, 1939-1945. Ramsbury: crowd. Pp. 113-114. Isbn 1-86126-799-1. “Mission no. 702 / june 10, 1944 / romana americana oil refinery, ploiesti, romania”. 82nd fighter group. Verified: august 27, 2009. Speke, mike (1983). 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Aerei nella storia no. 21, december 2000. “Memorandum for: chief wh, cia subject: bombing of the british ship ss springfjord”. Central intelligence agency, july 1, 1955. The three-page memorandum is stamped: “the cia historical review program, revised edition, 2003” villagran kramer, francisco (1993-2004). Political biography of guatemala. [Guatemala]: flaxo-guatemala-costa rica. P. 151. Isbn 978-99939-72-01-3. Lloyd, selwyn (july 5, 1954), “air attacks”, debates in the house of commons, british parliament, volume 529, cc 1769-1772, checked august 16, 2012. King, j.K. “Memorandum for: general council office: subject: s. S. Springfjord.” Central intelligence agency, july 25, 1958. The two-page memorandum is stamped: “cia historical review program, revised edition, 2003.” Hagedorn, daniel p. (July-november 1986). “From caudillo to coin”. Aviation enthusiast. No. 33. Pp. 55-70. Lockheed p-38l lightning. National museum of the united states air force. 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Danvers, massachusetts, usa: crown. Isbn 9780517552476. …The 418th, 419th and 421st night fighter squadrons received the p-38. Cross, roy (1968). Lockheed p-38 lightning. Publications by john w. Kaler. Isbn 9780858800038. Verified on january 25, 2020. Another experiment was a modification of the p-38 40-744 for experimental asymmetric flight tests… Body 2001, p. 118-121. A b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r andrade 1979, p. 146-147 a b kinzi 1998, p. 33 a b andrade 1979, p. 245 a b kinzi 1998, p. 27 a b kinzey 1998, p. 28 davis, larry (1990). P-38 “lightning” in action. Squadron/signal publications. P. 15. Isbn 0-89747-255-1. A b c d e f g h i andrade 1979, pp. 99-100 andrade 1979, pp. 191 cefaratt, gil (2002). Lockheed: the people behind this story (limited edition). Paducah, kentucky: turner pub. Pp. 15, 39, 141. Isbn 978-1-56311-847-0. Frey, royal d. (2004). Flights of american combat aircraft of world war ii: 1939-45 (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, pa: stackpole books. P. 61. 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- Andrade, john m. Designations and serial numbers of u.S. Military aircraft since 1909. Leicester, england: midland counties publishing, 1979. Isbn 0-904597-22-9 - bodie, warren m. Lockheed p-38 lightning: the definitive history of the lockheed p-38 fighter. Hayesville, north carolina: widewing publications, 2001 [1991]. Isbn 0-9629359-5-6. - Cross, swarm. Lockheed p-38 lightning technical manual. Kandenong, victoria, australia: kookaburra technical publications, john w. Kaler publications, 1968. Donald, david (2004). “Classic military aircraft: lockheed p-38 lightning “fork-tailed devil””. International review of the air force. Volume 14. Isbn 1-880588-85-4. Issn 1473-9917. - Kinzie, bert. Volume of parts and scale 57 p-38 lighting of part i from xp-38 to p-38h. Squadron/signal publications, 1998. Isbn 1-888974-10-9schiff, stacy. Saint-exupery: a biography. New york: henry holt, 2006, first edition 1994. Isbn 978-0-679-40310-4.- Stanaway, john s. P-38 lightning aces 1942-43. Bloomsbury, 2014. Isbn 9781782003335.- Stanway, john s. P-38 “lightning aces of the pacific ocean” and the cbd. New york: osprey, 1997.

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